Development and characterization of kevlar and glass fibers reinforced epoxy/vinyl ester hybrid resin composites

Hammad Ahmad, Atta Ur Rehman Shah, S. Kamran Afaq, Muhammad Muzammil Azad, Saad Arif, Muftooh Ur Rehman Siddiqi, Lijing Xie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This research investigates the influence of kevlar and glass fiber reinforcements on the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy/vinyl ester (hybrid resin) composite. The hybrid resin was synthesized by achieving an interpenetrating network between epoxy and vinyl ester. The composites were characterized using tensile, flexural, impact, and thermo‐gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to analyze surface morphology whereas Fourier‐Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FT‐IR) was used to investigate the possible interaction between the constituents of the composites. The findings have shown a notable improvement in the mechanical properties after the hybridization of the resin. For reference, the tensile strength of glass/hybrid resin and kevlar/hybrid resin composites were observed to increase by 8.33% and 23.65%, as compared to glass/epoxy and kevlar epoxy composites respectively, whereas, the bending strength of these composites was improved by 8.36% and 30.61%, respectively. TGA also showed an enhanced thermal stability of the hybrid resin‐based composites. Such improvements are noticed due to multi‐resin incorporation (the oxirane group of epoxy reacts with the hydroxyl group of vinyl ester), confirmed by the FTIR, TGA, and morphological analysis. This study signifies that the proposed hybrid composites are better in terms of strength and modulus relative to conventional metallic materials.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPolymer Composites
Early online date21 Mar 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2024 Society of Plastics Engineers. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: 'Ahmad, H, Shah, AUR, Afaq, SK, Azad, MM, Arif, S, Siddiqi, MUR & Xie, L 2024, 'Development and characterization of kevlar and glass fibers reinforced epoxy/vinyl ester hybrid resin composites', Polymer Composites', which has been published in final form at:  This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.


  • glass fiber
  • hybrid resin
  • kevlar fiber
  • mechanical properties
  • polymer composites
  • surface morphology


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