The development of a simple pH-stat fed-batch fermentation strategy for the production of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 and magnetosomes (nanoscale magnetic organelles with biotechnological applications) is described. Flow cytometry was exploited as a powerful analytical tool for process development, enabling rapid monitoring of cell morphology, physiology and polyhydroxyalkanoate production. The pH-stat fed-batch growth strategy was developed by varying the concentrations of the carbon source (lactic acid) and the alternative electron acceptor (sodium nitrate) in the feed. Growth conditions were optimized on the basis of biomass concentration, cellular magnetism (indicative of magnetosome production), and intracellular iron concentration. The highest biomass concentration and cellular iron content achieved were an optical density at 565 nm of 15.5 (equivalent to 4.2 g DCW·L−1) and 33.1 mg iron·g−1 DCW, respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of analyzing bacterial physiology during fermentation development and will potentially aid the industrial production of magnetosomes, which can be used in a wide range of biotechnology and healthcare applications.
Bibliographical note© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY/4.0/)
Funding: This work was supported by the ERA-IB grant EIB.13.016ProSeCa, funded by the UK Biotechnology & Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). The funders had no role in study design, collection, analysis and interpretation of data, writing of the report or the decision to submit the article for publication. Author contributions: AFC and HL performed the experiments; ORTT and TWO supervised the project. All authors wrote and approved the manuscript. The authors would like to thank Theresa Morris and Paul Stanley in the Centre for Electron Microscopy at the University of Birmingham. Declarations of interest: None.
- Flow cytometry
- Physiology of magnetotactic bacteria
- pH-stat fermentation