Dynamic measurement of accommodative responses while viewing stereoscopic images

Masahito Torii, Yuuki Okada, Kazuhiko Ukai, James S. Wolffsohn, Bernard Gilmartin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Using video refraction accommodative and convergence dynamic responses were measured to stepped changes in convergence stimuli with unchanged accommodative stimuli (conflicting stereoscopic image) and compared with responses to non-conflicting target stimuli. Three targets were used that varied in their spatial frequency components. An accommodative transient overshoot was evident in four out of seven subjects for only conflicting stimuli. One showed accommodative and convergence oscillation probably due to difficulty in fusing the stereoscopic target when it had a higher spatial component, however, this oscillation diminished when the target was spatial low-pass filtered. We hypothesise that transient responses to step stimuli is initiated by convergence-driven accommodation and subsequently followed by slower fine-control of accommodation modulated by the amount of blur. Inter-subject differences in convergence-driven accommodation may also be a factor to consider. For stereoscopic stimuli, it is proposed that the increase in blur immediately after the onset of the accommodative response inhibits cessation of the response.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-567
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Modern Optics
Issue number4-5
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2008
Event3rd European Meeting in Physiological Optics - London, United Kingdom
Duration: 7 Sept 20069 Sept 2006

Bibliographical note

This is an electronic version of an article published in Torii, M, Okada, Y, Ukai, K, Wolffsohn, JS & Gilmartin, B 2008, 'Dynamic measurement of accommodative responses while viewing stereoscopic images', Journal of modern optics, vol 55, no. 4-5, pp. 557-567. Journal of modern optics is available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500340701467652


  • accommodation
  • convergence
  • blur
  • spatial frequency
  • stereoscopic display
  • visual fatigue


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