Electrografting of poly (carbazole-co-acrylamide) onto highly oriented pyroltic graphite. A cyclovoltammetric, atomic force microscopic and ellipsometric study

Alexander Bismarck, Angelika Menner, Jörg Barner, Adam F. Lee, Karen Wilson, Jürgen Springer, Jürgen P. Rabec, A. Sezai Saraç

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The electrocopolymerization of carbazole and acrylamide on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) from ACN solutions via cyclovoltammetry (CV) was studied in order to evaluate the possibility to deposit uniform and thin but pinhole-free and still reactive coatings onto graphite-like substrates. The morphology of the coatings was investigated using atomic force microscopy and the coating thicknesses and optical parameters were measured using ellipsometry. It was found that under the chosen conditions thin (coating thickness hf>180 nm) and relatively smooth (root mean square surface roughness RMS<150 nm) P(Cz-co-AAm)-coatings exhibiting a uniform globuoidal morphology can be deposited onto graphite. From a certain coating thickness (hf>50 nm) no pinholes could be detected. It was found that the thickness of the deposited coatings increases almost linearly with increasing number of CV-cycles while keeping all other experimental parameters (scan rate and comonomer concentration ratio) constant. No influence of the comonomer concentration ratio on the film thickness and coating appearance could be observed, however, at quite low initial concentrations. However, the CV-scanning rate has quite a significant influence on the thickness of the deposited coatings. Higher scan rates (100 mV/s) result in thin (hf≈22 nm) coatings whereas at lower scan rates (<50 mV/s) coatings with thicknesses of approximately 50 nm were obtained. The optical coating parameters (the refractive index n and extinction coefficient k) seem to be independent of the deposition parameters and therefore averaged values of =1.54±0.03 and =0.08±0.03 were obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)164-175
Number of pages12
JournalSurface and coatings technology
Volume145
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2001

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Graphite
Acrylamide
carbazoles
graphite
coatings
Coatings
pinholes
carbazole
Optical coatings
optical coatings
pyrolytic graphite
Ellipsometry
ellipsometry
Film thickness
Atomic force microscopy
Refractive index
surface roughness
extinction
film thickness
Deposits

Keywords

  • electrocoating
  • atomic force microscopy
  • ellipsometry
  • photoelectron spectroscopy
  • graphite

Cite this

Bismarck, Alexander ; Menner, Angelika ; Barner, Jörg ; Lee, Adam F. ; Wilson, Karen ; Springer, Jürgen ; Rabec, Jürgen P. ; Saraç, A. Sezai. / Electrografting of poly (carbazole-co-acrylamide) onto highly oriented pyroltic graphite. A cyclovoltammetric, atomic force microscopic and ellipsometric study. In: Surface and coatings technology. 2001 ; Vol. 145, No. 1-3. pp. 164-175.
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Electrografting of poly (carbazole-co-acrylamide) onto highly oriented pyroltic graphite. A cyclovoltammetric, atomic force microscopic and ellipsometric study. / Bismarck, Alexander; Menner, Angelika; Barner, Jörg; Lee, Adam F.; Wilson, Karen; Springer, Jürgen; Rabec, Jürgen P.; Saraç, A. Sezai.

In: Surface and coatings technology, Vol. 145, No. 1-3, 01.08.2001, p. 164-175.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Electrografting of poly (carbazole-co-acrylamide) onto highly oriented pyroltic graphite. A cyclovoltammetric, atomic force microscopic and ellipsometric study

AU - Bismarck, Alexander

AU - Menner, Angelika

AU - Barner, Jörg

AU - Lee, Adam F.

AU - Wilson, Karen

AU - Springer, Jürgen

AU - Rabec, Jürgen P.

AU - Saraç, A. Sezai

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AB - The electrocopolymerization of carbazole and acrylamide on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) from ACN solutions via cyclovoltammetry (CV) was studied in order to evaluate the possibility to deposit uniform and thin but pinhole-free and still reactive coatings onto graphite-like substrates. The morphology of the coatings was investigated using atomic force microscopy and the coating thicknesses and optical parameters were measured using ellipsometry. It was found that under the chosen conditions thin (coating thickness hf>180 nm) and relatively smooth (root mean square surface roughness RMS<150 nm) P(Cz-co-AAm)-coatings exhibiting a uniform globuoidal morphology can be deposited onto graphite. From a certain coating thickness (hf>50 nm) no pinholes could be detected. It was found that the thickness of the deposited coatings increases almost linearly with increasing number of CV-cycles while keeping all other experimental parameters (scan rate and comonomer concentration ratio) constant. No influence of the comonomer concentration ratio on the film thickness and coating appearance could be observed, however, at quite low initial concentrations. However, the CV-scanning rate has quite a significant influence on the thickness of the deposited coatings. Higher scan rates (100 mV/s) result in thin (hf≈22 nm) coatings whereas at lower scan rates (<50 mV/s) coatings with thicknesses of approximately 50 nm were obtained. The optical coating parameters (the refractive index n and extinction coefficient k) seem to be independent of the deposition parameters and therefore averaged values of n̄=1.54±0.03 and k̄=0.08±0.03 were obtained.

KW - electrocoating

KW - atomic force microscopy

KW - ellipsometry

KW - photoelectron spectroscopy

KW - graphite

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