The advancements in autonomous robots for additive manufacturing (AM) are opening new horizons in the manufacturing industry, especially in aerospace and construction applications. The use of multiple robots and collaborative work in AM has rapidly gained attention in the industry and research community. Addressing the process planning challenges for single-robotic AM is foundational in addressing more advanced challenges at the collaborative multi-robotic level for AM. Among these challenges include the part placement problem which explores the optimal positioning of the part within the robot’s reach volume. The majority of the existing part placement algorithms take into account the part accuracy and manufacturing time for decision-making, while neglecting the implications of such decisions on energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. To address this gap, this paper presents a methodology for energy-efficient, high-quality part placement (EEHQPP) in robotic additive manufacturing. An energy-quality map is formulated and established to characterize the energy and quality variations across the robot’s workspace to inform the decision-making process. Two case studies (a container and a spur gear) are considered, and the performance of the proposed approach compared to the benchmark (i.e., default part placement by the 3D printing software) are evaluated. The proposed algorithm reduces both the energy consumption and maximum deviation error of the container (6.5% and 19.4%, respectively) and spur gear (1.4% and 32.7%, respectively) geometries manufactured by the robotic additive manufacturing system.