Trapping light within cavities or waveguides in photonic crystals is an effective technology in modern integrated optics. Traditionally, cavities rely on total internal reflection or a photonic bandgap to achieve field confinement. Recent investigations have examined new localized modes that occur at a Dirac frequency that is beyond any complete photonic bandgap. We design Al2O3 dielectric cylinders placed on a triangular lattice in air, and change the central rod size to form a photonic crystal microcavity. It is predicted that waves can be localized at the Dirac frequency in this device without photonic bandgaps or total internal reflections. We perform a theoretical analysis of this new wave localization and verify it experimentally. This work paves the way for exploring localized defect modes at the Dirac point in the visible and infrared bands, with potential applicability to new optical devices.
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Hu, L., Xie, K., Hu, Z., Mao, Q., Xia, J., Jiang, H., Zhang, J., Wen, J., & Chen, J. (2018). Experimental observation of wave localization at the Dirac frequency in a two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity. Optics Express, 26(7), 8213-8223. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.008213