Miscanthus × giganteus was subjected to pre-treatment with deionised water, hydrochloric acid or Triton X-100 surfactant, and subsequently fast pyrolysed in a fluidised bed reactor at 535 °C to obtain bio-oil. Triton X-100 surfactant was identified as a promising pre-treatment medium for removal of inorganic matter because its physicochemical nature was expected to mobilise inorganic matter in the biomass matrix. The influence of different concentrations of Triton X-100 pre-treatment solutions on the quality of bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis was studied, as defined by a single phase bio-oil, viscosity index and water content index. The highest concentration of Triton X-100 surfactant produced the best quality bio-oil with high organic yield and low reaction water content. The calculated viscosity index from the accelerated ageing test showed that bio-oil stability improved as the concentration of Triton X-100 increased.
Bibliographical noteCopyright 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.
Funding: EPSRC (EP/E039995/1: SUPERGEN Biomass Biofuels and Energy Crops II Core).
- bio-oil stability
- biomass pre-treatment
- fast pyrolysis