The European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) has progressively expanded its international footprint by collaborating with non‐European Union (EU) partners to enhance the management and security of the EU's external borders. This article examines the development of Frontex's external relations through a two‐level experimentalist governance lens and considers its impact on the EU's externalisation policy. The article contends that Frontex has enhanced its international profile in a context where EU policy actors' allocated goals have remained vague. The agency has had considerable autonomy in implementing these goals and has actively broadened its operational scope. The accountability dimension of Frontex's external relations, however, remains an important concern. To address this challenge, the article advocates greater transparency and disclosure, along with increased parliamentary and public oversight of Frontex.
|Contemporary European Politics
|Early online date
|5 Feb 2024
|Published - Mar 2024
Bibliographical note© 2024 The Authors. Contemporary European Politics published by University Association of Contemporary European Studies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
- externalisation of border controls
- experimentalist governance