Isolated central nervous system (CNS) presentations of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), traditionally a systemic inflammatory condition, have been reported in adults and children. We identified nine patients with a diagnosis of isolated CNS familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (fHLH) with symptom onset <18 years of age, and one asymptomatic sibling. Children with atypical chronic/recurrent CNS inflammation should be considered for immunological and genetic panel testing for fHLH even in the absence of any systemic inflammatory features. Despite haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) being a mainstay of treatment, treatment failure and high morbidity and mortality post-HSCT suggest that alternative immune therapies may be worth considering.
- central nervous system haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
- Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
- multiple sclerosis mimics
- paediatric demyelination