Localisation of oxysterols at the sub-cellular level and in biological fluids

Heraliyawala K Dias, Khushboo Borah, Berivan Amin, Helen Griffiths, Khouloud Sassi, Gérard Lizard, Ane Iriondo, Pablo Martinez-Lage

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol that are formed enzymatically or via reactive oxygen species or both. Cholesterol or oxysterols ingested as food are absorbed and packed into lipoproteins that are taken up by hepatic cells. Within hepatic cells, excess cholesterol is metabolised to form bile acids. The endoplasmic reticulum acts as the main organelle in the bile acid synthesis pathway. Metabolised sterols originating from this pathway are distributed within other organelles and in the cell membrane. The alterations to membrane oxysterol:sterol ratio affects the integrity of the cell membrane. The presence of oxysterols changes membrane fluidity and receptor orientation. It is well documented that hydroxylase enzymes located in mitochondria facilitate oxysterol production via an acidic pathway. More recently, the presence of oxysterols was also reported in lysosomes. Peroxisomal deficiencies favour intracellular oxysterols accumulation. Despite the low abundance of oxysterols compared to cholesterol, the biological actions of oxysterols are numerous and important. Oxysterol levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases ranging from chronic inflammatory diseases (atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and bowel disease), cancer and numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we review the distribution of oxysterols in sub-cellular organelles and in biological fluids.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105426
JournalThe journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Volume193
Early online date10 Jul 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019

Fingerprint

Cholesterol
Fluids
Sterols
Cell membranes
Bile Acids and Salts
Neurodegenerative diseases
Membranes
Mitochondria
Fluidity
Organelles
Mixed Function Oxygenases
Lipoproteins
Reactive Oxygen Species
Derivatives
Hepatocytes
Oxysterols
Cell Membrane
Enzymes
Membrane Fluidity
Lysosomes

Bibliographical note

© 2019, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Keywords

  • Fluids
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Oxysterols
  • Peroxisomes
  • Subcellular

Cite this

Dias, H. K., Borah, K., Amin, B., Griffiths, H., Sassi, K., Lizard, G., ... Martinez-Lage, P. (2019). Localisation of oxysterols at the sub-cellular level and in biological fluids. The journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 193, [105426]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105426
Dias, Heraliyawala K ; Borah, Khushboo ; Amin, Berivan ; Griffiths, Helen ; Sassi, Khouloud ; Lizard, Gérard ; Iriondo, Ane ; Martinez-Lage, Pablo . / Localisation of oxysterols at the sub-cellular level and in biological fluids. In: The journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2019 ; Vol. 193.
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Dias, HK, Borah, K, Amin, B, Griffiths, H, Sassi, K, Lizard, G, Iriondo, A & Martinez-Lage, P 2019, 'Localisation of oxysterols at the sub-cellular level and in biological fluids', The journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 193, 105426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105426

Localisation of oxysterols at the sub-cellular level and in biological fluids. / Dias, Heraliyawala K; Borah, Khushboo; Amin, Berivan; Griffiths, Helen; Sassi, Khouloud ; Lizard, Gérard ; Iriondo, Ane ; Martinez-Lage, Pablo .

In: The journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol. 193, 105426, 01.10.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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T1 - Localisation of oxysterols at the sub-cellular level and in biological fluids

AU - Dias, Heraliyawala K

AU - Borah, Khushboo

AU - Amin, Berivan

AU - Griffiths, Helen

AU - Sassi, Khouloud

AU - Lizard, Gérard

AU - Iriondo, Ane

AU - Martinez-Lage, Pablo

N1 - © 2019, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

PY - 2019/10/1

Y1 - 2019/10/1

N2 - Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol that are formed enzymatically or via reactive oxygen species or both. Cholesterol or oxysterols ingested as food are absorbed and packed into lipoproteins that are taken up by hepatic cells. Within hepatic cells, excess cholesterol is metabolised to form bile acids. The endoplasmic reticulum acts as the main organelle in the bile acid synthesis pathway. Metabolised sterols originating from this pathway are distributed within other organelles and in the cell membrane. The alterations to membrane oxysterol:sterol ratio affects the integrity of the cell membrane. The presence of oxysterols changes membrane fluidity and receptor orientation. It is well documented that hydroxylase enzymes located in mitochondria facilitate oxysterol production via an acidic pathway. More recently, the presence of oxysterols was also reported in lysosomes. Peroxisomal deficiencies favour intracellular oxysterols accumulation. Despite the low abundance of oxysterols compared to cholesterol, the biological actions of oxysterols are numerous and important. Oxysterol levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases ranging from chronic inflammatory diseases (atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and bowel disease), cancer and numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we review the distribution of oxysterols in sub-cellular organelles and in biological fluids.

AB - Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol that are formed enzymatically or via reactive oxygen species or both. Cholesterol or oxysterols ingested as food are absorbed and packed into lipoproteins that are taken up by hepatic cells. Within hepatic cells, excess cholesterol is metabolised to form bile acids. The endoplasmic reticulum acts as the main organelle in the bile acid synthesis pathway. Metabolised sterols originating from this pathway are distributed within other organelles and in the cell membrane. The alterations to membrane oxysterol:sterol ratio affects the integrity of the cell membrane. The presence of oxysterols changes membrane fluidity and receptor orientation. It is well documented that hydroxylase enzymes located in mitochondria facilitate oxysterol production via an acidic pathway. More recently, the presence of oxysterols was also reported in lysosomes. Peroxisomal deficiencies favour intracellular oxysterols accumulation. Despite the low abundance of oxysterols compared to cholesterol, the biological actions of oxysterols are numerous and important. Oxysterol levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases ranging from chronic inflammatory diseases (atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and bowel disease), cancer and numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we review the distribution of oxysterols in sub-cellular organelles and in biological fluids.

KW - Fluids

KW - Membrane

KW - Mitochondria

KW - Oxysterols

KW - Peroxisomes

KW - Subcellular

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U2 - 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105426

DO - 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105426

M3 - Review article

VL - 193

M1 - 105426

ER -

Dias HK, Borah K, Amin B, Griffiths H, Sassi K, Lizard G et al. Localisation of oxysterols at the sub-cellular level and in biological fluids. The journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2019 Oct 1;193. 105426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105426