Look and listen: A multi-modality late fusion approach to scene classification for autonomous machines

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputConference publication

Abstract

The novelty of this study consists in a multi-modality approach to scene classification, where image and audio complement each other in a process of deep late fusion. The approach is demonstrated on a difficult classification problem, consisting of two synchronised and balanced datasets of 16, 000 data objects, encompassing 4.4 hours of video of 8 environments with varying degrees of similarity. We first extract video frames and accompanying audio at one second intervals. The image and the audio datasets are first classified independently, using a fine-tuned VGG16 and an evolutionary optimised deep neural network, with accuracies of 89.27% and 93.72%, respectively. This is followed by late fusion of the two neural networks to enable a higher order function, leading to accuracy of 96.81% in this multi-modality classifier with synchronised video frames and audio clips. The tertiary neural network implemented for late fusion outperforms classical state-of-the-art classifiers by around 3% when the two primary networks are considered as feature generators. We show that situations where a single-modality may be confused by anomalous data points are now corrected through an emerging higher order integration. Prominent examples include a water feature in a city misclassified as a river by the audio classifier alone and a densely crowded street misclassified as a forest by the image classifier alone. Both are examples which are correctly classified by our multi-modality approach.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2020
PublisherIEEE
Pages10380-10385
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781728162126
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-6213-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2021
Event2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2020 - Las Vegas, United States
Duration: 24 Oct 202024 Jan 2021

Publication series

NameIEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
ISSN (Print)2153-0858
ISSN (Electronic)2153-0866

Conference

Conference2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2020
CountryUnited States
CityLas Vegas
Period24/10/2024/01/21

Bibliographical note

© 2021 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

Keywords

  • Image analysis
  • Neural networks
  • Urban areas
  • Forestry
  • Generators
  • Intelligent robots
  • Rivers

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