The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) has been deemed of considerable importance in the regulation of blood glucose. Its effects, mediated through the regulation of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, are glucose-dependent and contribute to the tight control of glucose levels. Much enthusiasm has been assigned to a possible role of GLP-1 in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLIP-l's action unfortunately is limited through enzymatic inactivation caused by dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV). It is now well established that modifying GLP-1 at the N-terminal amino acids, His7 and Ala8, can greatly improve resistance to this enzyme. Little research has assessed what effect Glu9-substitution has on GLP-1 activity and its degradation by DPP IV. Here, we report that the replacement of Glu9 of GLP-1 with Lys dramatically increased resistance to DPP IV. This analogue (Lys9)GLP-1, exhibited a preserved GLP-1 receptor affinity, but the usual stimulatory effects of GLP-1 were completely eliminated, a trait duplicated by the other established GLP-1-antagonists, exendin (9-39) and GLP-1 (9-36)amide. We investigated the in vivo antagonistic actions of (Lys9)GLP-1 in comparison with GLP-1(9-36)amide and exendin (9-39) and revealed that this novel analogue may serve as a functional antagonist of the GLP-1 receptor.
Green, B. D., Mooney, M. H., Gault, V. A., Irwin, N., Bailey, C. J., Harriott, P., Greer, B., Flatt, P. R., & O'Harte, F. P. M. (2004). Lys9 for Glu9 substitution in glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide confers dipeptidylpeptidase IV resistance with cellular and metabolic actions similar to those of established antagonists glucagon-like peptide-1(9-36)amide and exendin (9-39). Metabolism, 53(2), 252-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2003.09.015