Market structure and the efficiency of European insurance companies: A stochastic frontier analysis

Paul Fenn*, Dev Vencappa, Stephen Diacon, Paul Klumpes, Chris O'Brien

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper is motivated by the progressive liberalisation of the European insurance market in recent years. It uses stochastic frontier analysis to estimate Flexible Fourier cost functions for European insurance companies. Separate frontiers are estimated for life, non-life and composite companies. We adopt a maximum likelihood approach to estimation in which the variance of both one-sided and two-sided error terms is modelled jointly with the frontiers. This approach allows us to simultaneously control for the impact of heteroskedasticity on the estimation of scale economies as well as estimating the effect of firm size and market structure on X-inefficiency. The study draws on Standard & Poor's Eurothesys data set of financial reports for the period 1995 to 2001. This provides technical and non-technical accounts at year-end for life, non-life and composite insurance businesses in 14 major European countries. Our estimates suggest that over this period most European insurers were operating under conditions of decreasing costs (increasing returns to scale), and that company size and domestic market share were significant factors determining X-inefficiency. Larger firms, and those with high market shares, tend to have higher levels of cost inefficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)86-100
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Banking and Finance
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2008


  • Competition
  • Cost efficiency
  • Insurance
  • Stochastic frontier analysis


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