Research into cellular engineered bone grafts offers a promising solution to problems associated with the currently used auto- and allografts. Bioreactor systems can facilitate the development of functional cellular bone grafts by augmenting mass transport through media convection and shear flow-induced mechanical stimulation. Developing successful and reproducible protocols for growing bone tissue in vitro is dependent on tuning the bioreactor operating conditions to the specific cell type and graft design. This process, largely reliant on a trial-and-error approach, is challenging, time-consuming and expensive. Modelling can streamline the process by providing further insight into the effect of the bioreactor environment on the cell culture, and by identifying a beneficial range of operational settings to stimulate tissue production. Models can explore the impact of changing flow speeds, scaffold properties, and nutrient and growth factor concentrations. Aiming to act as an introductory reference for bone tissue engineers looking to direct their experimental work, this article presents a comprehensive framework of mathematical models on various aspects of bioreactor bone cultures and overviews modelling case studies from literature.
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- Mathematical modelling
- bone tissue engineering