Measuring patients' experience with renal services in the UK: development and validation of the Kidney PREM

Janine Hawkins*, David Wellsted, Claire Corps, Richard Fluck, Rachel Gair, Natalie Hall, Amanda Busby, Beth Rider, Ken Farrington, Shivani Sharma, Sabine N. Van Der Veer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Patient experience is a recognized aspect of quality of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but current patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) only focus on dialysis care. We developed and validated the Kidney PREM to assess patients' experience with renal services in secondary care for any CKD stage or treatment (transplant, haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis). Methods: We developed the Kidney PREM in two phases, informed by a multidisciplinary expert group to ensure face validity. We organized three national data collections (2016-8) to investigate item response profiles and to conduct exploratory and confirmatory analyses to assess internal consistency. We also explored content validity in cognitive interviews and evaluated test-retest reliability. Finally, we developed the Kidney PREM Short Form for more frequent measurement of patient experience to inform local service improvements. Results: We analysed 32 959 responses across data collections, with the 2018 collection covering all 71 UK renal centres. The Kidney PREM final version consisted of 38 items grouped into 13 themes, all pertaining to one underlying dimension reflecting the construct of 'patient experience' with high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94). The Kidney PREM Short Form consisted of 15 items across the same 13 themes. Conclusions: The Kidney PREM supports the collection of reliable information on patient experience that people with CKD consider relevant, regardless of CKD stage or treatment modality. Kidney PREM data have the potential to guide local and national initiatives to improve patients' experiences with renal services in the UK and other countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1507-1519
Number of pages13
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Issue number8
Early online date9 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s).


  • chronic renal insufficiency
  • healthcare surveys
  • patient satisfaction
  • psychometrics


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