Nanocellulose-based porous materials: Regulation and pathway to commercialization in regenerative medicine

Filipe v. Ferreira, Alana g. Souza, Rubina Ajdary, Lucas p. De souza, João h. Lopes, Daniel s. Correa, Gilberto Siqueira, Hernane s. Barud, Derval dos s. Rosa, Luiz h.c. Mattoso*, Orlando j. Rojas*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    We review the recent progress that have led to the development of porous materials based on cellulose nanostructures found in plants and other resources. In light of the properties that emerge from the chemistry, shape and structural control, we discuss some of the most promising uses of a plant-based material, nanocellulose, in regenerative medicine. Following a brief discussion about the fundamental aspects of self-assembly of nanocellulose precursors, we review the key strategies needed for material synthesis and to adjust the architecture of the materials (using three-dimensional printing, freeze-casted porous materials, and electrospinning) according to their uses in tissue engineering, artificial organs, controlled drug delivery and wound healing systems, among others. For this purpose, we map the structure–property–function relationships of nanocellulose-based porous materials and examine the course of actions that are required to translate innovation from the laboratory to industry. Such efforts require attention to regulatory aspects and market pull. Finally, the key challenges and opportunities in this nascent field are critically reviewed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)151-176
    Number of pages25
    JournalBioactive Materials
    Early online date12 Jul 2023
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2023

    Bibliographical note

    Funding: The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Sao ˜ Paulo
    Research Foundation [FAPESP; Grants No. 2016/10636-8, 2020/07956-
    6, 2018/22214-6, 2022/03247-6], the Brazilian National Council for
    Scientific and Technological Development [CNPq; ; Grants No 001], the
    European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon
    2020 research and innovation program [ERC Advanced Grant Agreement No. 788489, “BioElCell”], the Canada Excellence Research Chair
    Program [CERC-2018-00006], and Canada Foundation for Innovation
    [Project number 38623].
    Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co. Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY
    license (


    • cellulose nanofibrils
    • cellulose nanocrystals
    • regenerative medicine
    • biomaterial
    • sustainable materials
    • green nanomaterials


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