This paper reports on the analysis of on-road vehicle speed, emission, and fuel consumption data collected by four instrumented vehicles. Time-, distance-, and fuel-based average fuel consumption, as well as CO, HC, NOx, and soot emission factors, were derived. The influences of instantaneous vehicle speed on emissions and fuel consumption were studied. It was found that the fuel-based emission factors varied much less than the time- and distance-based emission factors as instantaneous speed changed. The trends are similar to the results obtained from laboratory tests. The low driving speed contributed to a significant portion of the total emissions over a trip. Furthermore, the on-road data were analyzed using the modal approach. The four standard driving modes are acceleration, cruising, deceleration, and idling. It was found that the transient driving modes (i.e., acceleration and deceleration) were more polluting than the steady-speed driving modes (i.e., cruising and idling) in terms of g/km and g/ sec. These results indicated that the on-road emission measurement is feasible in deriving vehicle emissions and fuel consumption factors in urban driving conditions.
|Journal||Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association|
|Publication status||Published - 2000|