Optical interventions for myopia control

Nicola S Logan, Mark A Bullimore

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


A range of optical interventions have been developed to slow the progression of myopia. This review summarizes key studies and their outcomes. Peer-reviewed, randomized controlled clinical trials of at least 18 months duration were identified. Randomized clinical trials were identified and summarised: 13 for spectacles, 5 for overnight orthokeratology, 5 for soft contact lenses, and 3 for orthokeratology combined with low concentration atropine. Overnight orthokeratology trials were the most consistent with 2-year slowing of axial elongation between 0.24 and 0.32 mm. Other modalities were more variable due to the wide range of optical designs. Among spectacle interventions, progressive addition lenses were the least effective, slowing axial elongation and myopia progression by no more than 0.11 mm and 0.31 D, respectively. In contrast, novel designs with peripheral lenslets slow 2-year elongation and progression by up to 0.35 mm and 0.80 D. Among soft contact lens interventions, medium add concentric bifocals slow 3-year elongation and progression by only 0.07 mm and 0.16 D, while a dual-focus design slows 3-year elongation and progression by 0.28 mm and 0.67 D. In summary, all three optical interventions have the potential to significantly slow myopia progression. Quality of vision is largely unaffected, and safety is satisfactory. Areas of uncertainty include the potential for post-treatment acceleration of progression and the benefit of adding atropine to optical interventions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEye (London, England)
Early online date22 Sept 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Royal College of Ophthalmologists, 2023. Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law. This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use [https://www.springernature.com/gp/open-research/policies/accepted-manuscript-terms], but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41433-023-02723-5


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