Optimized caged silica synthesis with lithium chloride and calcium chloride impregnation for prospective desalination application

Sundus Khushnood, Javaid Rabbani Khan, Kim Choon Ng, M. Kum Ja, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Wakil Shahzad*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In twentieth century, nations are dealing with several problems related to fresh water availability that needs to be addressed at the earliest. Adsorption desalination by employing inorganic caged silica could be a feasible approach to address this pressing issue. Caged Silica is an inorganic sorbent that is widely employed in a variety of applications, including catalysts, thermal insulation, energy storage batteries, and as an adsorbent in the extraction of fresh water. Researchers have devised several techniques to prepare mono-dispersed caged silica with standard morphology. Template synthesis is quite prominent due to its structural stability and versatility. In this article, we present synthesis of caged silica microsphere via hard template synthesis by employing the process of calcination and subsequent drying. Emulsion polymerization was utilized to develop the polystyrene required in the procedure. This study also looks at how different parameters like silica precursor, surfactant, and catalyst affect silica morphology. We also impregnated Caged silica with 9% of hygroscopic salts (CaCl2 and LiCl) and it showed substantial uptake improvement. Preliminary results showed that LiCl impregnated caged silica is more efficient at water uptake compared to CaCl2.The proposed composite adsorbent (Si-9-Li & Si-9-Ca) could be a stepping stone for improvement in the field of desalination, specifically in adsorbent development, and open new doors to exploration and reliability.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Porous Materials
Publication statusPublished - 30 Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Caged Silica
  • Emulsion polymerization
  • Hard template synthesis
  • Morphology


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