Craig Russell*, Stefanie Melhorn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputChapter


Preparations for the oropharynx form a wide range, from the classical gargles and lozenges up to modern muco-adhesive forms, based on polymer technology. This chapter deals with dosage forms intended for administration to the oral cavity and the throat, or both, to obtain a local effect. These dosage forms can be solutions such as mouthwashes and gingival solutions, or buccal tablets or semisolid preparations such as oromucosal pastes and dental gels. In this chapter the use, the design of formulation and preparation method will be discussed. In the formulation of preparations for the oropharynx, taste and texture are features that are important for the acceptance by the patient. Pharmacy preparation can play an important role, because of the advantage that preparations can be tailor made according to the specific situation or taste of the patient. For instance, chemotherapy and several other active substances, may cause dry mouth and stomatitis, and mouthwashes or gels can relieve these problems. However, they should not cause irritation and must be accepted by the patient. This has to be kept in mind when choosing a vehicle, or the pH or the osmotic value of a preparation.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPractical Pharmaceutics
Subtitle of host publicationAn International Guideline for the Preparation, Care and Use of Medicinal Products, Second Edition
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9783031202988
ISBN (Print)9783031202971
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2023


  • Dental gel
  • Formulation
  • Mouthwash
  • Muco-adhesive
  • Oropharynx
  • Preparation


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