PCDD/F formation from oxy-PAH precursors in waste incinerator flyash

Yaghoub Hajizadeh, Jude A. Onwudili, Paul T. Williams*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The yield of PCDD/F in relation to the presence of oxygenated PAH in model waste incinerator flyash has been investigated in a fixed bed laboratory scale reactor. Experiments were undertaken by thermal treatment of the model flyash at 250 and 350°C under a simulated flue gas stream for 2. h. After reaction, the PCDD/F content of the reacted flyash and the PCDD/F released into the exhaust gas, and subsequently trapped by XAD-II resin in a down-stream condensation system were analyzed. The PAHs investigated were, dibenzofuran and benzo[b]naphtho[2,3-d]furan and were spiked onto the model flyash as reactant precursors for PCDD/F formation. The results showed significant formation of furans from both of the PAH investigated, however except from some highly chlorinated dioxin congeners, the formation of dioxins was not so common. Benzonaphthofuran was significantly more reactive than dibenzofuran in PCDD/F formation, in spite of the fact that dibenzofuran is structurally more similar to that of PCDD/F. Thus, there was no clear attribution between the chemical structure of PAH used and the formation of PCDD/F. There were considerable differences between the yields of PCDD/F congeners in the gaseous species and those in the reacted flyash under the same operational conditions. The concentration of PCDD/Fs was reduced at the higher reaction temperature of 350°C; however, the higher temperature resulted in the majority of the PCDD/F formed on the flyash being released into the gas phase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1672-1681
Number of pages10
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011


  • Flyash
  • Incineration
  • PAH
  • PCDD/F


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