Performance Evaluation of Phenol-Resin-Based Adsorbents for Heat Transformation Applications

Hafiz M. Asfahan, Muhammad Sultan, Muhammad Farooq, Fahid Riaz, Sobhy M. Ibrahim, Md Shamim Ahamed, Muhammad Imran

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Phenol resins (PRs) are considered as relatively inexpensive adsorbents synthesized from agricultural biomass via employing a variety of synthesized procedures. The performance of PR for heat transformation application is not widely investigated. In this regard, the present study aims to evaluate the four PR derivative/refrigerant pairs, namely (i) KOH6-PR/CO2, (ii) SAC-2/HFC, (iii) KOH4-PR/ethanol, and (iv) KOH6-PR/ethanol, for adsorption cooling and adsorption heating applications. Ideal cycle analyses and/or thermodynamic modelling approaches were utilized comprising governing heat and mass balance equations and adsorption equilibrium models. The performance of the AHP system is explored by means of specific cooling energy (SCE), specific heating energy (SHE), and coefficient of performance (COP), both for cooling and heating applications, respectively. It has been realized that KOH6-PR/ethanol could produce a maximum SCE of 1080 kJ/kg/cycle and SHE of 2141 kJ/kg/cycle at a regeneration temperature (Treg) and condenser temperature (Tcond) of 80 °C, and 10 °C, respectively, followed by KOH4-PR/ethanol, SAC-2/HFC-32, and KOH6-PR/CO2. The maximum COP values were estimated to be 1.78 for heating and 0.80 for cooling applications, respectively, at Treg = 80 °C and Tcond = 10 °C. In addition, the study reveals that, corresponding to increase/decrease in condenser/evaporator pressure, both SCE and SHE decrease/increase, respectively; however, this varies in magnitude due to adsorption equilibrium of the studied PR derivative/refrigerant pairs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5262
Number of pages23
Issue number15
Early online date26 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative CommonsAttribution (CC BY) license (

Funding Information: This work was supported by Researchers Supporting Project number (RSP2023R100), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Authors acknowledge financial support from Abu Dhabi University’s Office of Research and Sponsored Programs. This research work has been carried out in the Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan-Pakistan with the support of the BZU-ORIC Project (2020-21).


  • ideal cycle
  • phenol resins
  • specific cooling energy
  • specific heating energy


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