Phonological impairments in Hindi aphasics: Error analyses and cross-linguistic comparisons

Dinesh Ramoo, Claudia Galluzzi, Andrew Olson, Cristina Romani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We assessed phonological and apraxic impairments in Hindi persons with aphasia (PwA) and compared them to Italian PwA reported in previous studies. Overall, we found strong similarities. Phonological errors were present across production tasks (repetition, reading and naming), most errors were non-lexical and, among those, a majority involved individual phonemes. There were significant effects of length, but not frequency. Hindi PwA, like the Italian PwA, showed strong effects of syllabic structure, with most errors occurring on consonants and weak syllabic positions, preserving syllable structure and simplifying phonemes or syllabic templates. These similarities were modulated by some language-specific patterns. Vowel insertions were more common in Hindi, possibly due to the presence of a central vowel, and segmental simplifications concentrated on marked aspiration and retroflection features. We hope our study will encourage further research in Hindi and other Indian languages. This will improve clinical diagnosis and our understanding of cross-linguistic differences.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages31
JournalCognitive Neuropsychology
Early online date26 Feb 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2024 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Accepted Manuscript version of the following article, accepted for publication in Cognitive Neuropsychology and published on 26th February 2024. This version is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • speech errors
  • Hindi
  • phonological errors
  • aphasia


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