Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-allylamine) (PNIPAM-co-ALA) nanospheres for the thermally triggered release of Bacteriophage K

Hollie Hathaway, Diana R. Alves, Jessica Bean, Patricia Perez Esteban, Khadija Ouadi, J. Mark Sutton, A. Toby A. Jenkins*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Due to the increased prevalence of resistant bacterial isolates which are no longer susceptible to antibiotic treatment, recent emphasis has been placed on finding alternative modes of treatment of wound infections. Bacteriophage have long been investigated for their antimicrobial properties, yet the utilization of phage therapy for the treatment of wound infections relies on a suitable delivery system. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is a thermally responsive polymer which undergoes a temperature dependent phase transition at a critical solution temperature. Bacteriophage K has been successfully formulated with PNIPAM nanospheres copolymerized with allylamine (PNIPAM-co-ALA). By utilizing a temperature responsive polymer it has been possible to engineer the nanospheres to collapse at an elevated temperature associated with a bacterial skin infection. The nanogels were reacted with surface deposited maleic anhydride in order to anchor the nanogels to non-woven fabric. Bacteriophage incorporated PNIPAM-co-ALA nanospheres demonstrated successful bacterial lysis of a clinically relevant bacterial isolate - Staphylococcus aureus ST228 at 37 °C, whilst bacterial growth was unaffected at 25 °C, thus providing a thermally triggered release of bacteriophage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-441
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2015


  • Bacteriophage
  • Thermal release


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