Quantum advantage beyond entanglement in Bayesian game theory

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Quantum discord has been utilised in order to find quantum advantage in an extension of the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) game. By writing the game explicitly as a Bayesian game, the resulting game is modified such the payoff's are different. Crucially, restrictions are imposed on the measurements that Alice and Bob can perform. By imposing these restrictions, it is found that there exists quantum advantage beyond entanglement for a given quantum state. This is shown by decomposing the expected payoff into a classical and quantum term. By optimising over the expected payoff, the classical limit is surpassed for the given state in the restricted measurement space. This gives an operational framework in order to witness and determine the quantum discord for specific states, whilst demonstrating the importance of measurement in quantum advantage.
Original languageEnglish
Article number065303
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical
Issue number6
Early online date8 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2024 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd. As the Version of Record of this article is going to be / has been published on a gold open access basis under a CC BY 4.0 licence, this Accepted Manuscript is available for reuse under a CC BY 4.0 licence immediately. Everyone is permitted to use all or part of the original content in this article, provided that they adhere to all the terms of the licence https://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0


  • quantum discord
  • quantum game theory
  • quantum information


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