Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an enzyme which catalyses the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3 diphosphoglycerate. It is considered to be constitutively expressed in all cells, and as such the gene for GAPDH (gapd) is commonly used as a benchmark reference in expression studies. However, previous investigations have demonstrated that gapd may show altered gene expression in a number of disease states and under certain experimental conditions, suggesting that results of experiments using gapd as a control should be interpreted with caution. Furthermore, consideration must be given to the potential co-amplification of pseudogenes of gapd during RT-PCR. Here, we describe a method to avoid the amplification of contaminating pseudogenes through the design of primers that bind only to genuine gapd mRNA transcript. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- gene expression
- glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
- quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction