Semantic correction, enrichment and enhancement of social and transport infrastructure BIM models

Nicholas Nisbet*, Zijing Zhang, Ling Ma, Weiwei Chen, Mustafa Selçuk Çıdık

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) models in the design, construction and operation of buildings and infrastructure is leading to a stronger focus on the quality of the models. Models may need correction, enrichment or enhancement to meet the expectations for quality and completeness, especially if models are to be taken as legal documents, for example for regulatory approval. Past work on semantic development has looked at specific scenarios such as scanned geometry or missing classification. This paper describes an innovative unified approach to the documentation of semantic expectations by actors in the AECO (Architectural, Engineering, Construction and Operations) domain and the means to put them into effect. RASE (Requirements, Applications, Selections and Exceptions) semantic mark-up is used to make both the requirements and any supporting resources both human-readable and machine-operable. Two example models from industry, a motorway bridge and a healthcare space, are used to demonstrate applying geometric, schema and classification knowledge. This knowledge is represented in a number of different styles. This extends our understanding of the nature of the knowledge found in dictionaries, classifications and development specifications, demonstrating how this knowledge can be made operable. This bridges the gap between the application of static compliance knowledge and the accurate and efficient application of correction, enrichment and enhancement knowledge.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102290
JournalAdvanced Engineering Informatics
Early online date4 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (


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