This paper reports on the results of a research project built on two streams of work. The first is a well-established framework for the participation of Indigenous peoples in the global economy through entrepreneurship in the pursuit of development on their own terms (Colbourne and Anderson, 2017). The second is research into the structural and competitive determinants of successful participation by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the global economy (Nkongolo-Bakenda et al., 2006, 2010). Combining these two streams, the project involves case studies on SMEs in challenging contexts struggling to participate internationally to increase the well-being of the enterprises' owners, families, and communities. The communities are (1) the Kanak People in New Caledonia and (2) the San People from South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Botswana with (3) SMEs from Iran all struggling to compete internationally.