The use of data analysis methods: basic concepts for optometrists

Richard A. Armstrong, Frank Eperjesi

Research output: Contribution to specialist publication or newspaperArticle


This article explains first, the reasons why a knowledge of statistics is necessary and describes the role that statistics plays in an experimental investigation. Second, the normal distribution is introduced which describes the natural variability shown by many measurements in optometry and vision sciences. Third, the application of the normal distribution to some common statistical problems including how to determine whether an individual observation is a typical member of a population and how to determine the confidence interval for a sample mean is described.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages5
Specialist publicationOptometry Today
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2000


  • statistics
  • experimental investigation
  • normal distribution
  • natural variability
  • measurements
  • optometry
  • vision sciences


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