The stability of the oil phase obtained from intermediate pyrolysis process was used for this investigation. The analysis was based on standard methods of determining kinematic viscosity, gas - chromatography / mass - spectrometry for compositional changes, FT-IR for functional group, Karl Fischer titration for water content and bomb calorimeter for higher heaating values. The methods were used to determine changes that occurred during ageing. The temperatures used for thermal testing were 60 °C and 80 °C for the periods of 72 and 168 h. Methanol and biodiesel were used as solvents for the analysis. The bio-oil samples contained 10 % methanol, 10 % Biodiesel, 20 % Biodiesel and unstabilised pyrolysis oil. The tests carried out at 80 °C showed drastic changes compared to those at 60 °C. The bio-oil samples containing 20 % biodiesel proved to be more stable than those with 10 % methanol. The unstabilised pyrolysis oil showed the greatest changes in viscosity, composition change and highest increase in water content. The measurement of kinematic viscosity and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry were found to be more reliable for predicting the ageing process.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||International Journal of Renewable Energy Research-IJRER|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2011|
Bibliographical noteIJRER provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
- intermediate pyrolysis
- pyrolysis oil
- sewage sludge