A three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) model with elastic-plastic anisotropy was built to investigate the effects of anisotropy on nanoindentation measurements for cortical bone. The FEA model has demonstrated a capability to capture the cortical bone material response under the indentation process. By comparison with the contact area obtained from monitoring the contact profile in FEA simulations, the Oliver-Pharr method was found to underpredict or overpredict the contact area due to the effects of anisotropy. The amount of error (less than 10% for cortical bone) depended on the indentation orientation. The indentation modulus results obtained from FEA simulations at different surface orientations showed a trend similar to experimental results and were also similar to moduli calculated from a mathematical model. The Oliver-Pharr method has been shown to be useful for providing first-order approximations in the analysis of anisotropic mechanical properties of cortical bone, although the indentation modulus is influenced by anisotropy.
- elastic properties