Introduction. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant disease caused by the loss of function of the heterodimeric complex hamartin/tuberin due to TSC1/TSC2 gene mutation. The consequent abnormal activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine threonine kinase regulating cellular growth, metabolism and proliferation, is responsible for the structural and functional abnormalities observed in TSC. mTOR inhibitors are a class of drugs specifically targeting the mTOR pathway with promising benefits as a specific targeted treatment of the disease. Areas covered. We have reviewed the literature focusing on the role of mTOR inhibitors in treating TSC-related conditions. They are currently approved for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipomas and more recently for lymphangioleiomyomatosis, but a promising role has been shown also in the other clinical manifestation characteristics of TSC, such as cardiac rhabdomyomas, facial angiofibromas and epilepsy. Expert opinion. mTOR inhibition is considered a disease-modifying therapy and the best approach to prevent the progress of the natural history of the disease. For the first time we have the possibility not only to use a biologically targeted treatment, but also to address different manifestations at the same time, thus significantly improving the therapeutic outlook in this complex disease.
- mTOR inhibitors
- tuberous sclerosis complex