Understanding the visual function symptoms and associated functional impacts of phakic presbyopia

Sarah Bentley*, Amy Findley, Sima Chiva-Razavi, Christel Naujoks, Francesco Patalano, Chloe Johnson, Rob Arbuckle, James S. Wolffsohn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Presbyopia is defined as the age-related deterioration in the ability to focus on close objects, causing difficulty with near vision tasks. The study aim was to understand the lived experience of phakic presbyopia and identify all relevant visual function symptoms and associated functional impacts. Methods: Fifty individuals with clinician-confirmed phakic presbyopia (US n = 30, France n = 10, Germany n = 10) and seven healthcare professionals (HCPs) participated in in-depth, face-to-face, qualitative concept elicitation interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis methods. Results: Visual function symptoms reported by participants with phakic presbyopia were categorized as: primary near vision functioning symptoms (impaired near visual acuity, n = 50/50, 100%; difficulty with near vision in dim light, n = 42/50, 84%; difficulty focusing at close distances, n = 30/50, 60%; difficulty seeing things when glare is present, n = 30/50, 60%) and secondary symptoms (eye strain, n = 37/50, 74%; dry eyes, n = 35/50, 70%; headaches, n = 30/50, 60%). Proximal impacts on functional vision included difficulty reading in near vision (n = 49/50, 98%, including printed text and handwriting), seeing objects in near vision n = 48/50, 96%, and performing activities of daily living that require near vision (n = 49/50, 98%, including using a smartphone or computer). Distal impacts on functional vision included emotional, work, financial and social impacts. HCP interviews supported participant findings. Conclusion: Findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the lived experience of phakic presbyopia which informed the development of a presbyopia conceptual model and patient-reported outcome assessments of vision correction independence and near vision functioning. The sample did not include those whose vision cannot be adequately corrected with lenses or surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114
JournalJournal of Patient-Reported Outcomes
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.


  • Interviews
  • Near vision
  • Presbyopia
  • Qualitative research
  • Quality of life


Dive into the research topics of 'Understanding the visual function symptoms and associated functional impacts of phakic presbyopia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this