The ictal assessment of consciousness is of central importance in the differential diagnosis of epilepsy and nonepileptic attack disorder (NEAD). Long-term video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) is currently considered the gold standard investigative technique for the evaluation of patients with recurrent attacks associated with transient alterations of arousal (responsiveness) and/or awareness (experiential states). This paper offers a concise review focusing on the practical aspects of clinical relevance in the video-EEG diagnostic workout of inpatients with suspected epilepsy or NEAD, as outlined in existing guidelines and recommendations. The reviewed literature implies that both implementation of specific procedures (e.g., activation maneuvers) and interpersonal approach (e.g., monitoring protocols) during video-EEG should be tailored to the individual patient's presentation.
- nonepileptic attack disorder
- psychogenic nonepileptic seizures