We study theoretically and numerically the dynamics of a passive optical fiber ring cavity pumped by a highly incoherent wave: an incoherently injected fiber laser. The theoretical analysis reveals that the turbulent dynamics of the cavity is dominated by the Raman effect. The forced-dissipative nature of the fiber cavity is responsible for a large diversity of turbulent behaviors: Aside from nonequilibrium statistical stationary states, we report the formation of a periodic pattern of spectral incoherent solitons, or the formation of different types of spectral singularities, e.g., dispersive shock waves and incoherent spectral collapse behaviors. We derive a mean-field kinetic equation that describes in detail the different turbulent regimes of the cavity and whose structure is formally analogous to the weak Langmuir turbulence kinetic equation in the presence of forcing and damping. A quantitative agreement is obtained between the simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with cavity boundary conditions and those of the mean-field kinetic equation and the corresponding singular integrodifferential reduction, without using adjustable parameters. We discuss the possible realization of a fiber cavity experimental setup in which the theoretical predictions can be observed and studied.