The role of stable nitroxyl radical precursors as antioxidants in polyolefins

  • Basuki Wirjosentono

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


Various 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidines and their N-alkyl derivatives of stable nitroxyl radical precursors containing acrylic(s) and methacrylic(s) groups were reactively processed in the presence of a peroxide as bound-antioxidant masterbatches for polyolefin stabilisation. It was found that grafting of the antioxidant monomers onto the polymer backbone was inevitably in competition with homopolymerisation of the monomers as well as melt degradation of the polymer and other side reactions. As previously reported, binding efficiency of bisacrylic nitroxyl precursor was maximum due to formation of unextractable homopolymer of the antioxidant. On the other hand, the binding efficiency of monoacrylic derivatives was low and the homopolymers were found extractable, which suggests that the bound monoacrylic derivatives are entirely grafted onto the polyolefin backbone. Application of bis and tri-functional coagents gave improved binding efficiency of the monoacrylic monomers. This may be due to copolymerisation of the antioxidants with the coagents and grafting of the copolymers onto the polymer backbone.
Comparison of photostabilising activity of the fully extracted bound antioxidants to those of the corresponding unbound analogous showed lower results for the former. However, thermal stabilising activity of the bound antioxidants was higher than that of the unbound analogous due to better substantivity. Analysis using physical techniques and GPC for molecular weight distribution of masterbatches containing the bound monoacrylic antioxidants showed formation of high molecular weight products. Model reaction of a secondary amine derivative in liquid hydrocarbon and analysis of the product using FTIR and NMR spectroscopy indicated a possibility of side reaction, i.e. involvement of the amine active group (>N-H) of the antioxidant in the binding process to form the high molecular weight product. Implementation of various N-alkylated derivatives did not inhibit the side reaction. The photostabilising activity of the bound-antioxidants can be improved when applied in conjunction with small amounts of a benzophenone uv-stabiliser. The synergistic stabilising activity, however, was diminished when the uv-stabiliser was removed from the system during the service time.
Nitroxyl precursors containing methacrylic group(s) gave lower binding efficiency than the corresponding acrylic derivatives. Reversible deploymerisation of the grafted methacrylic antioxidants may be responsible for this. Bis and tris-acrylic coagents improved the binding efficiency, and the presence of methacrylic group improved stabilising activity of the antioxidants. N-methyl derivatives were found to exhibit better stabilising activity than their parent secondary amine derivatives.
Date of AwardAug 1991
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorSahar Al-Malaika (Supervisor) & Gerald Scott (Supervisor)


  • nitroxyl precursors
  • stabilisation
  • hindered amines
  • bound-antioxidants
  • reactive processing
  • grafting
  • polyolefins

Cite this