Vitamin and mineral deficiencies in the developed world and their effect on the eye and vision

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Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common in developing countries, but also occur in developed countries. We review micronutrient deficiencies for the major vitamins A, cobalamin (B-12), biotin (vitamin H), vitamins C and E, as well as the minerals iron, and zinc, in the developed world, in terms of their relationship to systemic health and any resulting ocular disease and/or visual dysfunction. A knowledge of these effects is important as individuals with consequent poor ocular health and reduced visual function may present for ophthalmic care.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalOphthalmic and Physiological Optics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2008


  • biotin, cobolamin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc

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