A core-shell SO4/Mg-Al-Fe3O4 catalyst for biodiesel production

Jabbar Gardy, Ehsan Nourafkan, Amin Osatiashtiani, Adam F. Lee, Karen Wilson, Ali Hassanpour, Xiaojun Lai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Catalytic transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of free fatty acids underpins sustainable biodiesel production, wherein efficient heterogeneous catalysts are sought to replace mineral acids. A robust, magnetic core-shell SO4/Mg-Al-Fe3O4 catalyst was synthesised by stepwise co-precipitation, encapsulation, and surface functionalisation. The resulting magnetically-separable catalyst has a surface area of 123 m2 g-1, uniform 6.5 nm mesopores, and a high total acid site loading of 2.35 mmol g-1. Optimum conditions for the (trans)esterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) over the sulfated solid acid catalyst were 95 °C, a methanol:WCO molar ratio of 9:1, and 300 min reaction to achieve 98.5 % FAME yield. Esterification of oleic acid to methyl oleate resulted in an 88 % yield after 150 min under the same reaction conditions. The magnetic solid acid catalyst exhibited good thermal and chemical stability and enabled facile catalyst separation post-reaction and the production of high quality biodiesel.
Original languageEnglish
Article number118093
JournalApplied Catalysis B: Environmental
Volume259
Early online date16 Aug 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Aug 2019

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Biofuels
Biodiesel
catalyst
shell
Catalysts
acid
Acids
Transesterification
Cooking
Esterification
Oils
Magnetic cores
encapsulation
Oleic acid
oil
Chemical stability
Oleic Acid
Coprecipitation
Encapsulation
Fatty acids

Bibliographical note

Crown Copyright © 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Funding: Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research of the Kurdistan Regional Government for funding this study under the Human Capacity Development Program (HCDP).

Cite this

Gardy, Jabbar ; Nourafkan, Ehsan ; Osatiashtiani, Amin ; Lee, Adam F. ; Wilson, Karen ; Hassanpour, Ali ; Lai, Xiaojun. / A core-shell SO4/Mg-Al-Fe3O4 catalyst for biodiesel production. In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 2019 ; Vol. 259.
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abstract = "Catalytic transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of free fatty acids underpins sustainable biodiesel production, wherein efficient heterogeneous catalysts are sought to replace mineral acids. A robust, magnetic core-shell SO4/Mg-Al-Fe3O4 catalyst was synthesised by stepwise co-precipitation, encapsulation, and surface functionalisation. The resulting magnetically-separable catalyst has a surface area of 123 m2 g-1, uniform 6.5 nm mesopores, and a high total acid site loading of 2.35 mmol g-1. Optimum conditions for the (trans)esterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) over the sulfated solid acid catalyst were 95 °C, a methanol:WCO molar ratio of 9:1, and 300 min reaction to achieve 98.5 {\%} FAME yield. Esterification of oleic acid to methyl oleate resulted in an 88 {\%} yield after 150 min under the same reaction conditions. The magnetic solid acid catalyst exhibited good thermal and chemical stability and enabled facile catalyst separation post-reaction and the production of high quality biodiesel.",
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A core-shell SO4/Mg-Al-Fe3O4 catalyst for biodiesel production. / Gardy, Jabbar; Nourafkan, Ehsan; Osatiashtiani, Amin; Lee, Adam F.; Wilson, Karen; Hassanpour, Ali; Lai, Xiaojun.

In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 259, 118093, 15.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - A core-shell SO4/Mg-Al-Fe3O4 catalyst for biodiesel production

AU - Gardy, Jabbar

AU - Nourafkan, Ehsan

AU - Osatiashtiani, Amin

AU - Lee, Adam F.

AU - Wilson, Karen

AU - Hassanpour, Ali

AU - Lai, Xiaojun

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Y1 - 2019/8/16

N2 - Catalytic transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of free fatty acids underpins sustainable biodiesel production, wherein efficient heterogeneous catalysts are sought to replace mineral acids. A robust, magnetic core-shell SO4/Mg-Al-Fe3O4 catalyst was synthesised by stepwise co-precipitation, encapsulation, and surface functionalisation. The resulting magnetically-separable catalyst has a surface area of 123 m2 g-1, uniform 6.5 nm mesopores, and a high total acid site loading of 2.35 mmol g-1. Optimum conditions for the (trans)esterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) over the sulfated solid acid catalyst were 95 °C, a methanol:WCO molar ratio of 9:1, and 300 min reaction to achieve 98.5 % FAME yield. Esterification of oleic acid to methyl oleate resulted in an 88 % yield after 150 min under the same reaction conditions. The magnetic solid acid catalyst exhibited good thermal and chemical stability and enabled facile catalyst separation post-reaction and the production of high quality biodiesel.

AB - Catalytic transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of free fatty acids underpins sustainable biodiesel production, wherein efficient heterogeneous catalysts are sought to replace mineral acids. A robust, magnetic core-shell SO4/Mg-Al-Fe3O4 catalyst was synthesised by stepwise co-precipitation, encapsulation, and surface functionalisation. The resulting magnetically-separable catalyst has a surface area of 123 m2 g-1, uniform 6.5 nm mesopores, and a high total acid site loading of 2.35 mmol g-1. Optimum conditions for the (trans)esterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) over the sulfated solid acid catalyst were 95 °C, a methanol:WCO molar ratio of 9:1, and 300 min reaction to achieve 98.5 % FAME yield. Esterification of oleic acid to methyl oleate resulted in an 88 % yield after 150 min under the same reaction conditions. The magnetic solid acid catalyst exhibited good thermal and chemical stability and enabled facile catalyst separation post-reaction and the production of high quality biodiesel.

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