This work provides a comprehensive literature review to evaluate the expected impacts of the introduction of electric vehicles into the power electric system with smart grid, examining the case of Brazil. Previous studies point out to different impact levels with the introduction of electric vehicles in the country’s electric grid, varying from small impacts for substitution of 10 % of the fleet, to potential difficulties if more than 20 % of the fleet is replaced. Electric vehicles offer significant advantages over their internal combustion engine powered vehicles counterparts, including the higher efficiency and performance of the electric motor, reduced pollution emissions during operation, and decreased noise levels. The current disadvantages lie mainly with the higher vehicle and battery costs, relatively long battery-charging period required, limited battery lifetime, and the need to increase market availability. Brazil’s electricity generation capacity is primarily based on clean and renewable energy (hydropower, wind, biomass), providing the preferred approach to charge electric vehicles with minimal carbon and other pollutant emissions. With the introduction of smart grids in the country’s electricity distribution structure, electric vehicles also provide a pathway (with renewable energy options) toward cleaner electricity, leveling the power demand cycle, and lowering the need to add costly central station generation by integrating them into the grid itself during periods when they are not used for transportation. However, careful studies must be conducted mainly due to the need to increase electric power generation to meet existing and imminent demands.
Sodré, J. R., Teixeira, A. C. R., Da Silva, D. L., Diniz, A. S. A. C., & Machado Neto, L. D. V. B. (2015). A review on electric vehicles and their interaction with smart grids: the case of Brazil. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 17(4), 841-857. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-014-0865-x