A wide range of molecules acting as apoptotic cell-associated ligands, phagocyte-associated receptors or soluble bridging molecules have been implicated within the complex sequential processes that result in phagocytosis and degradation of apoptotic cells. Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3, also known as CD50), a human leukocyte-restricted immunoglobulin super-family (IgSF) member, has previously been implicated in apoptotic cell clearance, although its precise role in the clearance process is ill defined. The main objective of this work is to further characterise the function of ICAM-3 in the removal of apoptotic cells. Using a range of novel anti-ICAM-3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including one (MA4) that blocks apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages, alongside apoptotic human leukocytes that are normal or deficient for ICAM-3, we demonstrate that ICAM-3 promotes a domain 1-2-dependent tethering interaction with phagocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate an apoptosis-associated reduction in ICAM-3 that results from release of ICAM-3 within microparticles that potently attract macrophages to apoptotic cells. Taken together, these data suggest that apoptotic cell-derived microparticles bearing ICAM-3 promote macrophage chemoattraction to sites of leukocyte cell death and that ICAM-3 mediates subsequent cell corpse tethering to macrophages. The defined function of ICAM-3 in these processes and profound defect in chemotaxis noted to ICAM-3-deficient microparticles suggest that ICAM-3 may be an important adhesion molecule involved in chemotaxis to apoptotic human leukocytes.
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- HeLa Cells
- Jurkat Cells