Assessment of Visual Function Using Mobile Apps

Thaiba Bano, James S. Wolffsohn*, Amy Sheppard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


With the advances in smartphone and tablet screens, as well as their processing power and software, mobile apps have been developed reporting to assess visual function. This review assessed those mobile apps that have been evaluated in the scientific literature to measure visual acuity, reading metrics, contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity, colour vision and visual fields; these constitute just a small percentage of the total number of mobile apps reporting to measure these metrics available for tablets and smartphones. In general, research suggests that most of the mobile apps evaluated can accurately mimic most traditionally paper-based tests of visual function, benefitting from more even illumination from the backlit screen and aspects such as multiple tests and versions (to minimise memorisation) being available on the same equipment. Some also utilise the in-built device sensors to monitor aspects such as working distance and screen tilt. As the consequences of incorrectly recording visual function and using this to inform clinical management are serious, clinicians must check on the validity of a mobile app before adopting it as part of clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
Early online date20 Mar 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © The Author(s) 2024. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit


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