Crashworthiness design and optimisation of windowed tubes under axial impact loading

Hamid Nikkhah, Ahmad Baroutaji*, Abdul Ghani Olabi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Thin-walled structures are frequently used as energy absorbers in the automotive, railway and aviation industries. This paper addresses the crashworthiness performance of thin-walled windowed tubes under dynamic impact loading. Different shapes of cut-outs were introduced to thin-walled tubes with different cross-sectional shapes to create windowed tubes. Explicit finite element code, LS-DYNA, was used to simulate the crushing behaviour of the windowed tubes under axial impact loading. The Finite Element (FE)model was validated by conducting experimental tests and showing that the numerical and experimental responses are comparable. The crashworthiness responses of the different windowed tubes were compared and the best performing tube was identified using a multi-criteria decision-making method known as Technique of Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). It was found that a circular tube with a square window shape outperforms all other sections and exhibits the best energy absorption characteristics. Subsequently, a multi-objective optimisation analysis was performed to find the optimal configuration of the best tube. Response Surface Methodology (RSM)was used to develop models for the energy absorption responses of the tube. The design variables were selected to describe size, number, and distributions of the windows, while specific energy absorption (SEA)and peak crush force (PCF)were set as design responses. Parametric analysis was conducted to understand the effects of the design variables on the crashworthiness behaviour and the optimal configuration was identified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-148
Number of pages17
JournalThin-Walled Structures
Early online date15 May 2019
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019


  • Crashworthiness
  • Dynamic loading
  • Energy absorption impact
  • Optimisation
  • Windowed tube


Dive into the research topics of 'Crashworthiness design and optimisation of windowed tubes under axial impact loading'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this