Estimation of transportation battery second life for use in electricity grid systems

Dani Strickland, Laurence Chittock, David A. Stone, Martin P. Foster, Brian Price

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents research from part of a larger project focusing on the potential development of commercial opportunities for the reuse of batteries on the electricity grid system, subsequent to their primary use in low and ultra-low carbon vehicles, and investigating the life cycle issues surrounding the batteries. The work has three main areas; examination of electric vehicle fleet data in detail to investigate usage in first life. Batteries that have passed through a battery recycler at the end of their first life have been tested within the laboratory to confirm the general assumption that remaining capacity of 80% after use in transportation is a reasonable assumption as a basis for second-life applications. The third aspect of the paper is an investigation of the equivalent usage for three different second-life applications based on connection to the electricity grid. Additionally, the paper estimates the time to cell failure of the batteries within their second-life application to estimate lifespan for use within commercial investigations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)795-803
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number3
Early online date11 Mar 2014
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2014

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  • batteries
  • electric vehicles (EVs)
  • energy storage
  • frequency response
  • smart grids


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