Impact of an Okinawa/Nordic based diet on endocrinological and periodontal conditions in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A randomized case–control study

G. Rutger Persson*, Cecilia Widén, Björn Wohlfart, Klas Sjöberg, Stig Steen, Michael D. Coleman, Helene Holmer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To assess if the results following intake of a diet using an Okinawan-based Nordic diet (OBND) over one month differs in endocrinological, periodontal clinical outcome, and serum cytokine levels compared to a standard hospital care diet in individuals with diabetes type 2 (T2D) (control group). Background: Scientific evidence suggests that the use of diet for individuals with T2D may be beneficial. Methods: Participating individuals with T2D were randomly assigned to a test (OBND) (n = 14), or control group (n = 16). Anthropometric data, blood glucose levels, HbA1c levels, lipids, serum inflammation markers (CRP, and a routine panel of 24 cytokines), blood pressure, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depths (PPD), and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were studied. Results: Statistical analyses of baseline study data failed to demonstrate study group differences. The mean weight reduction was greater in the OBND group (4.1 kg) versus the control group (1.3 kg) (p < 0.01). The reduction in BMI was 1.4 kg/m2 in OBND (p < 0.001) and 0.5 kg/m2 in the control group, respectively (p < 0.01). Diastolic and systolic blood pressure reductions were greater in the OBND group than in the control group (p < 0.01). Periodontal study parameters (BOP % scores) and (PPD values) decreased (p < 0.001) overall with no between group differences. The OBND resulted in reduction of serum levels of IFNγ, Eotaxin IL-9, IP10,IL17a, MCP-1,m and PDFBB compared to the control diet. Conclusions: A strict T2D- diet provides an association between reduction in serum HbA1c and BOP scores. Serum levels decreases in IFNγ, Eotaxin IL-9, IP-10, IL17a. MCP-1, and PDFBB were only found in the test group.
Original languageEnglish
Article number544
Number of pages11
JournalBMC Oral Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

Funding Information:
Igelösa Life Science AB also arranged and paid for the delivery of diets to study participants. The study was supported by Kristianstad Central Hospital, Kristianstad University, and by Hans-Gabriel and Alice Trolle-Wachtmeister’s Foundation for Medical Research. The funding agencies have received a report on the findings.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature.


  • Gingivitis
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Cytokine
  • HbA1c
  • Periodontitis
  • Diet


Dive into the research topics of 'Impact of an Okinawa/Nordic based diet on endocrinological and periodontal conditions in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A randomized case–control study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this