Improved prognosis after cardiac resynchronization therapy over a decade

Francisco Leyva, Abbasin Zegard, Peysh Patel, Berthold Stegemann, Howard Marshall, Peter Ludman, Joseph de Bono, Giuseppe Boriani, Tian Qiu

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AIMS: The past decade has seen an increased delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) for patients with heart failure (HF). We explored whether clinical outcomes after CRT have changed from the perspective of an entire public healthcare system. METHODS AND RESULTS: A national database covering the population of England (56.3 million in 2019) was used to explore clinical outcomes after CRT from 2010 to 2019. A total of 64 698 consecutive patients (age 71.4 ± 11.7 years; 74.8% male) underwent CRT-defibrillation [n = 32 313 (49.7%)] or CRT-pacing [n = 32 655 (50.3%)] implantation. From 2010-2011 to 2018-2019, there was a 76% increase in CRT implantations. During the same period, the proportion of patients with hypertension (59.6-73.4%), diabetes (26.5-30.8%), and chronic kidney disease (8.62-22.5%) increased, as did the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI ≥ 3 from 20.0% to 25.1%) (all P < 0.001). Total mortality decreased at 30 days (1.43-1.09%) and 1 year (9.51-8.13%) after implantation (both P < 0.001). At 2 years, total mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-0.76] and total mortality or HF hospitalization (HR: 0.59; 95% CI 0.57-0.62) decreased from 2010-2011 to 2018-2019, after correction for age, race, sex, device type (CRT-defibrillation or pacing), comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and myocardial infarction), or the CCI (HR: 0.81; 95% CI 0.77-0.85). CONCLUSIONS: From the perspective of an entire public health system, survival has improved and HF hospitalizations have decreased after CRT implantation over the past decade. This prognostic improvement has occurred despite an increasing comorbidity burden.

Bibliographical note

Copyright © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact


  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • Heart failure hospitalization
  • Mortality


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