Infill Density in Additive Manufacturing and Application to the DFMA of an Iron Man Helmet

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputConference publication


Additive manufacturing has become increasingly
popular for rapid prototyping and industrial applications, particularly
in the context of Industry 4.0. However, given the
vast design parameter space, there remains a lack of characterisation
of the mechanical properties for varying design
parameters. Consequently, flexural tests are undertaken following
the ISO 178:2019 for fused deposition modelling (FDM) samples,
with three infill patterns (lines, gyroid and triangles), four
thermoplastic materials, namely acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
(ABS), polylactic acid (PLA and PLA+), and polyethylene terephthalate
glycol (PETG), and infill densities (print material to part
volume ratio) ranging from 0.10 to 1.00. Here we show that (i) the
modulus and strength are independent of the tested infill types;
(ii) the mechanical properties increase linearly with infill density;
and (iii) considering mechanical properties, mass and cost, PLA+
appears as the most suitable overall material choice, with PETG
appropriate for strength-driven, low-cost applications. Ultimately,
PLA+ is applied to the design for manufacturing and assembly
(DFMA) case study of an Iron Man helmet. These findings
provide novel insights into the variations of mechanical properties
with infill type, density and material for 3D printing applications
and may contribute to future development in lightweight and
cost-effective additive manufacturing.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe 28th International Conference on Automation and Computing (ICAC2023)
Place of PublicationBirmingham, UK
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2023
Event28th International Conference on Automation and Computing (ICAC2023) - Birmingham, United Kingdom
Duration: 30 Aug 20231 Sept 2023


Conference28th International Conference on Automation and Computing (ICAC2023)
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom

Bibliographical note

© 2023 The Authors


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