Investigations on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion with Different Injection Strategies using Alternative Fuels Produced from Waste Resources

Arun Raj Chidambaram, Anand Krishnasamy*, Ganesh Duraisamy, A K Hossain

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a promising low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategy that results in low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. At the same time, RCCI leads to increased unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in the exhaust, particularly under low loads. The current work experimented novel port-injected RCCI (PI-RCCI) strategy to overcome the high unburned emission limitations at low load conditions in RCCI. PI-RCCI is a port injection strategy in which low-reactivity fuel (LRF) is injected using a low-pressure injector, and the high-reactivity fuel (HRF) is injected through a high-pressure common rail direct injection (CRDI) injector. The low volatile HRF is injected into a heated fuel vaporizer maintained at 180°C in the intake manifold during the suction stroke. Modifying a singlecylinder, light-duty diesel engine with the necessary intake and fuel injection systems allows engine operation in both RCCI and PI-RCCI modes. Alternative fuels from waste resources such as waste cooking oil biodiesel (WCO) and plastic waste oil (WPO) are used as the HRF and LRF fuel in RCCI and PI-RCCI. To achieve maximum thermal efficiency in RCCI, the premixed energy ratio and the start of injection of the direct-injected fuel are optimized at all load conditions. The engine performance and exhaust emissions characteristics in PI-RCCI are compared with RCCI as a baseline reference. The results show a 70% and 48% reduction in
CO and HC emissions, respectively, in PI-RCCI than in RCCI. Further, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was enhanced by around 20%, and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was reduced by 13% in PI-RCCI. The NOx emissions decreased without any
considerable changes in soot emission in PI-RCCI. The current study shows that fuels derived from waste resources can be used in RCCI and PI-RCCI modes with better engine performance and lower emissions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4063 - 4076
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Engine Research
Issue number9
Early online date23 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding: The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding for the present work by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, through the Indo-United Kingdom joint project, “Waste to Engine - Low Temperature Combustion of Sustainable Green Fuels” (Grant Number: DST_UKIERI - 2018-19-04).
This accepted manuscript version is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License [].


  • Plastic waste oil
  • waste cooking oil
  • RCCI
  • engine performance
  • reduced emissions


Dive into the research topics of 'Investigations on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion with Different Injection Strategies using Alternative Fuels Produced from Waste Resources'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this