We propose and demonstrate the fabrication of an all-fiber mode converter enabling simultaneous generation of multiple high-order core modes, which is realized by inscribing a helical long-period grating (HLPG) in a few-mode fiber (FMF) using a femtosecond laser. Helical refractive index modulation is introduced by continuously irradiating the core region with a highly focused femtosecond laser, while the fiber moves in a spiral path through a three-dimensional translation stage. Mode conversion from the LP01 mode to high-order core modes, including LP11, LP21, LP31, LP02, LP12, and LP41 modes, is achieved by controlling the inscription pitch of the grating. Moreover, first-, second-, third-, and fourth-order orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes can be directly generated using the HLPGs, and multiple OAM modes of different topological charges can be simultaneously excited using a single high diffraction order HLPG. This approach offers a new option for implementing with high-integration high-order mode converters or OAM mode generators.
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics