Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring technology in diabetes management: review

Jeban Chandir Moses, Sasan Adibi, Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Lemai Nguyen, Maia Angelova, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Diabetes is one of the leading non-communicable diseases globally, adversely impacting an individual's quality of life and adding a considerable burden to the healthcare systems. The necessity for frequent blood glucose (BG) monitoring and the inconveniences associated with self-monitoring of BG, such as pain and discomfort, has motivated the development of non-invasive BG approaches. However, the current research progress is slow, and only a few BG self-monitoring devices have made considerable progress. Hence, we evaluate the available non-invasive glucose monitoring technologies validated against BG recordings to provide future research direction to design, develop, and deploy self-monitoring of BG with integrated emerging technologies. We searched five databases, Embase, MEDLINE, Proquest, Scopus, and Web of Science, to assess the non-invasive technology's scope in the diabetes management paradigm published from 2000 to 2020. A total of three approaches to non-invasive screening, including saliva, skin, and breath, were identified and discussed. We observed a statistical relationship between BG measurements obtained from non-invasive methods and standard clinical measures. Opportunities exist for future research to advance research progress and facilitate early technology adoption for healthcare practice. The results promise clinical validity; however, formulating regulatory guidelines could foresee the deployment of approved non-invasive BG monitoring technologies in healthcare practice. Further, research prospects are there to design, develop, and deploy integrated diabetes management systems with mobile technologies, data analytics, and the internet of things (IoT) to deliver a personalised monitoring system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9
Number of pages17
Early online date19 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © mHealth. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits the non-commercial replication and distribution of the article with the strict proviso that no changes or edits are made and the original work is properly cited (including links to both the formal publication through the relevant DOI and the license). See:


  • Diabetes
  • chronic disease
  • non-invasive
  • type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)


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