OESDs in an on-road study of semi-automated vehicle to human driver handovers

Neville A. Stanton*, James W. Brown, Kirsten M.A. Revell, Jisun Kim, Joy Richardson, Pat Langdon, Mike Bradley, Nermin Caber, Lee Skrypchuk, Simon Thompson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Design of appropriate interaction and human–machine interfaces for the handover of control between vehicle automation and human driver is critical to the success of automated vehicles. Problems in this interfacing between the vehicle and driver have led, in some cases, to collisions and fatalities. In this project, Operator Event Sequence Diagrams (OESDs) were used to design the handover activities to and from vehicle automation. Previous work undertaken in driving simulators has shown that the OESDs can be used to anticipate the likely activities of drivers during the handover of vehicle control. Three such studies showed that there was a strong correlation between the activities drivers represented in OESDs and those observed from videos of drivers in the handover process, in driving simulators. For the current study, OESDs were constructed during the design of the interaction and interfaces for the handover of control to and from vehicle automation. Videos of drivers during the handover were taken on motorways in the UK and compared with the predictions from the OESDs. As before, there were strong correlations between those activities anticipated in the OESDs and those observed during the handover of vehicle control from automation to the human driver. This means that OESDs can be used with some confidence as part of the vehicle automation design process, although validity generalisation remains an important goal for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)317-332
Number of pages16
JournalCognition, Technology and Work
Issue number2
Early online date2 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Jaguar Land Rover and the UK-EPSRC Grant EP/N011899/1 as part of the jointly funded Towards Autonomy: Smart and Connected Control (TASCC) Programme.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.


  • Driving automation
  • Handover
  • Interface design
  • OESD
  • Validation


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